Response to Matthew Baral’s Perspective on the Measles Outbreak

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Response to Matthew Baral on writing about the measles vaccine:

http://www.azcentral.com/story/opinion/op-ed/2015/02/09/vaccines-measles-facts/23142469/
http://drmatthewbaral.com/archives/1699

Matthew Baral’s recent blog post and corresponding opinion piece in the Arizona Republic highlights a trendy and inappropriate naturopathic stance on vaccinations. He claims that because he has 15 years of experience practicing as a naturopath seeing numerous patients with autism spectrum disorder he can assert objectivity and scientific acumen. He maintains that a cautious approach to the CDC recommended vaccination schedule is scientifically sound and states that arguments from the both the pro-vaccine and anti-vaccine camps need clarification in order for parents and patients to make informed choices. He further suggests that there are effective natural vaccine alternatives to prevent infectious diseases, like the measles.

It is typical for naturopaths to promote and administer vaccines but frequently deviate from the established immunization schedule and write exemptions for personal beliefs instead of medical necessity. These naturopaths call themselves vaccine neutral, or vaccine impartial, and preach about parental choice dominating in the vaccine debate. (I am not even going to mention the far greater number of naturopaths who fully reject vaccinations and who also  write personal belief exemptions.)

It is as if naturopaths are making up their own standards of care. They use buzzwords like “individualized” or “compassionate” and arguments that vaccines contain many toxins, that vaccines are linked to developmental disorders, that vaccines can overload a child’s immune system, and that vaccine-preventable diseases can be fought or prevented with natural medicines. I can put my weight behind the scientific consensus to say that healthcare practitioners who use these points are doing everyone a dangerous disservice.

I focus on what Matthew Baral wrote about vaccines because he is the president of the Pediatric Association of Naturopathic Physicians and chair of the Department of Pediatrics at Southwest College Naturopathic Medicine. I find it deeply troubling that he does not advocate the widely accepted medical standards of care when inoculating children against communicable diseases. This disconnect between being a leader in the naturopathic community and a self-proclaimed medical expert is unfortunately quite characteristic of the naturopathic profession. I’ll break down how Baral’s writing on vaccines misinterprets scientific facts, confuses causality and correlation, and blatantly ignores the opinions of real experts and dedicated scientists.

I want to start with what it actually means to be “pro-vaccine.” You cannot be pro-vaccine simply because you agree with administering some vaccines, to some children, under some circumstances. Such reasoning is a major cop-out. I understand this error because I used to make it myself. I used to believe that a delayed vaccine schedule was medically appropriate in any case. I used to believe that some vaccines should not be administered in the presence of developmental delays. I used to space out vaccines across many office visits. I didn’t trust research that debunked the link between vaccines and seemingly unrelated diseases. To make a long story short, I now question everything I was taught in naturopathic medical school. And I mean everything. When I read Baral’s arguments, I understood why I used to believe what I did.

The main problem with Baral’s position is that he uses the argument of false equivalency. His strategy is to present his views as a middle ground between two extreme positions that are not equal: 1) vaccine proponents want to silence or jail those who are “anti-vax” and 2) “anti-vaxxers” denounce all inoculations and therefore cause harm to society. It is also possible to consider his position a straw-man argument, in which he misrepresents his opponents’ positions in order to clear a path for his own argument that seems attractive because it is not prejudicial or aggressive. In reality, vaccine advocates want everyone to be healthier, and they arrive at their decisions based on science. This is the definition of “pro-vaccine.” The anti-vaccination camp cannot be equated to the scientific community. Therefore, Baral’s middle-ground reasoning is false.

A few important things need to change when we discuss vaccinations and the opinions and research that underlies how they are used. First, Baral argues that the American Association of Naturopathic Physicians (AANP) is pro-vaccine. I can see how he might have gotten confused as the AANP provides vague and incomplete recommendations.

The AANP Position Paper on Immunizations that Baral mentions does not advocate the administration of routine childhood vaccines. The paper does not mention any vaccine schedule specifically nor does the paper recommend a standard of care. The paper instead clearly leaves room open for exemptions and custom inoculation schedules between parents and practitioners “within the range of options provided by state law.” Since many states have major loopholes in public health law regarding vaccine exemptions, this statement basically means vaccinate as you like or even not at all.

The AANP paper also talks about the “moral obligation and legal mandate to uphold and carry out public health mandates” but stops short of clearly stating how to make such an obligation effective. A step in the right direction would be to recommend that in order for such public health mandates to be effective, vaccines must be administered according to the US Centers for Disease Control and/or World Health Organization recommendations. Furthermore, the AANP paper states that “agents” in vaccines “have been associated with significant morbidity and are of variable efficacy and varying necessity.” Basically, the AANP says that 1) vaccines are scary and may not work 2) naturopaths have a lot of wiggle room as afforded by state laws; 3) and parents have a lot to bring to the discussion, all while weakly nodding to public health mandates.

In contrast to the AANP paper, the AAFP Immunization Recommendations firmly anchors decisions to administer vaccines within a clinical setting by the family physician based on the “best understanding of the science of medicine.” AAFP’s policy is presented alongside a schedule for vaccination and a clear statement that in order to improve the healthcare of America, “these recommendations must be met.”

Second, Baral states that the discussion regarding autism and the MMR vaccine “is a debate that will never end” but in my opinion, it needs to end. One does not need expert knowledge in order to discover reliable sources that point at the science. There are reputable organizations that clearly spell out the evidence and consensus of family physicians, epidemiologists, and immunologists. The criticism found on the internet of this consensus is driven by a belief in conspiracy theories. There is no conspiracy.

The MMR vaccine does not cause autism. There is no evidence that is does, but there are lots of conspiracy driven ideas. In fact, in order to claim that the vaccine causes autism, one must carry the burden of proof. Show the evidence, if there is any. Remember, Wakefield’s paper was retracted and his medical license in the UK was revoked for his professional misconduct. Subsequent research was performed and turned up no link. None.

Furthermore, Autistic children should be vaccinated according to the regular schedule because, contrary to Baral’s claim, their immune systems do not behave abnormally when inoculated. Baral’s citation of Singh’s research does not bring into the discussion that his work has been discredited by the scientific community. In a controlled analysis of titers (antibody levels) to the MMR vaccine, autistic children showed identical immune responses to control groups. For further reading, examine this document published by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

Also, this paper beautifully outlines the history of the autism-MMR myth and research discrediting both Wakefield’s 1998 study and Singh’s subsequent research suggesting a relationship between measles vaccination and central nervous system autoimmunity.

Patients with mitochondrial diseases should indeed receive vaccines, and no scientific evidence exists to the contrary. Baral cites the case of Hannah Poling as evidence that patients may suffer from a vaccine-induced mitochondrial disease as if this is another form of autism. In fact, mitochondrial disorders are not linked to autism, but can be confused with autism because they share clinical features but rarely share autistic-like features alone. Patients with mitochondrial disorders are much more susceptible to complications and disease exacerbations from viral infections that cause fevers, like influenza and the measles. Thus, it is very important for these patients to be immunized on schedule to avoid contracting an infection which causes a life threatening fever.

There is no need for Baral to even mention the possibility that any parent has to decide when the time is right to perform a muscle biopsy to definitively diagnose a mitochondrial disorder. Most typically, patients present with a constellation of symptoms that indicate the need to test further, in which case vaccination against fever-causing diseases is prudent. For further reading regarding this topic, please reference this Mitochondrial Disorder Overview published in 2014 and also Dr. Paul Offit’s case analysis on Hannah Poling.

Third, Baral is wrong in his descriptions of the efficacy of vaccines in terms of recent disease outbreaks. His discussion needs to include the fact that vaccination exemption is a significant contributing factor. Factually, there were over 9,000 cases of pertussis in the 2010 California outbreak, and yes, 9% of these were unvaccinated, but this glosses over geographic distributions and epidemiology. An examination of the clusters of communities with higher than average vaccine exemptions for non-medical reasons was found to have contributed to the outbreak. The geography of disease is important because pathogens can spread rapidly through undervaccinated communities and persist, from which others can be infected.

Lastly, Baral grossly misrepresents how vitamin A and measles infection are linked. He assumes that children are susceptible to measles infection when they are also vitamin A deficient. He states that we currently do not know which “came first, the low vitamin A or the measles?” Well, this is easily answered, because measles obviously occurs in populations who are not vitamin A deficient. The chances of being infected by the measles does not depend on one’s vitamin A status. The science is clear and remarkable however, that vitamin A given in two super doses, to patients who are very deficient in vitamin A and who also already have an advanced measles infection will reduce their risk of death and complications.

Baral’s presentation of this important public health discovery seems to be pushing for vitamin A supplementation for all and probably testing vitamin A levels. For measles, vitamin A should be taken only by patients with the disease to reduce the risk of death. Naturopaths erroneously believe that supplements are essential for health, and in some, limited cases, it can be (i.e., folic acid during pregnancy). Vitamin A does not prevent the measles. It can prevent death and severe complications only in the presence of already being infected with the measles.

Baral’s arguments have taken the reader on quite a journey. He began by setting himself up as a middle-path seeker, but he gave too much legitimacy to the anti-vaccine position. This sort of pandering is unethical for any healthcare professional. It is important to note that the AANP does not advocate for vaccines in any way similar to all other major health organizations. Next, he takes the reader through a misrepresentation of disease causality with the MMR vaccine, autism, and mitochondrial disease. The reader leaves this topic with the impression that parents should be vigilant about such purported side effects of the vaccine and practice discretion when deciding what vaccines to allow and when. From here, he takes the reader to the idea that not all vaccines are really that effective when juxtaposed against the general statistics of whooping cough outbreaks. The problem here is that geography and clustering are very important variables for how and why communicable diseases spread. Finally, Baral leaves the reader with much doubt about the risk factors of contracting the measles when he misrepresents the science on vitamin A as a treatment.

Baral ends his articles with another fashionable naturopathic declaration: we all “want our children to be healthy and happy.” Usually this statement is followed with an explanation of how vaccines are just one of many ways to achieve this goal. Baral suggests that “it is imperative to keep the passion in our debates focused not on clenching to our position, but to ask every question possible.” Ironically, Baral’s article shows profound bias that exhibits deeply flawed reasoning. He also doesn’t ask a lot of relevant questions. When writing his articles, Baral clearly avoided research that challenged his viewpoint, cited discredited research, and brought his readers to believe in ideas that actually work against his claimed goals.

To the scientifically untrained reader, and those who are not thinking critically, Baral’s arguments seem objective because he presents a false middle-ground perspective. However, when his arguments are fact-checked and examined for logical fallacies, one finds deluded science and faith-based medicine. Sadly, Baral’s critical thinking and interpretive mistakes in research are common in naturopathic medicine. I hear these faulty arguments from naturopaths frequently. This reality has created a thriving environment to perpetuate biases through communal reinforcement. Instead of claiming objectivity and reinforcing the biases of worried parents, naturopaths should be directing parents towards health decisions that are justified with scientific evidence and medical consensus. Otherwise, they should step aside.

Image credit: Sanofi Pasteur under a CC License
  • Asia M.

    Yes! As a recent naturopathic grad, I am obsessed with this blog. Thank you for this objective lens you provide. Please write more!

    • jessie

      I also appreciate objective lenses and the full story, but Asia why do you love a blog that bashes and creates distrust of your own profession?

      • Asia

        Jessie, I don’t see this blog as you see it, apparently. This blog does not make or break my life. Where did I say I “loved” this blog? That is a fallacy on your part. Much of what is said in these blog posts is actually true because I have experienced these things for myself while in school. Where did I say I agreed with everything in these blogs? I applaud Britt for writing her story and expressing herself. Will this blog change my plans for myself in Naturopathic medicine… prob not. I’m not so attached to the “naturopathic profession” that I can’t speak for myself. I actually love the possibilities of Naturopathic Medicine however that does in no way mean that I will sugarcoat what really goes on in the profession. Good day, Jessie.

      • Asia

        Also Jessie, you clearly don’t agree with this blog. However, I don’t see your comments under any of the blog posts, you only commented under my post. Don’t just speak your mind to me, speak your mind to the blog. Challenge Britt if you are brave enough. It is very disrespectful and condescending to tell someone what they should and should not agree with especially when you don’t know my story. It’s a very entitled mindset. You clearly feel entitled to question me in a condescending manner.

      • Asia

        Also, one more thing… Every knock is a boost. I enjoy this blog because it only pushes me to be a better, more scientific Naturopathic physician regardless of how I may feel about the posts. Allopathic medicine and medical research has its horror stories/flaws for sure, take the Celecoxib drug scandal as just one of the many! I’ve never heard of anything as deathly monumental as Celecoxib in naturopathic med occurring. But just because naturopathic docs aren’t killing ppl with drugs doesn’t mean they/we are exempt from critique. Nor does it mean that natural is always safe. It is what it is. I actually know my purpose in life and the good of the blog, I enjoy. The portions of the blog that I disagree with, only challenge me to be more firmly educated in the reasons that I disagree. I see nothing with wrong with agreeing to disagree. If you or anyone else disagrees with the blog, don’t sit around and pout… do something. Read a book, educate yourself, find research. I hope my comments have provided you some enlightenment, Jessie.

        • Lawrence

          I would recommend against using the term “Allopathic” as it means nothing in the modern sense – it was a term coined by homeopaths to differentiate themselves from real doctors.

        • Fernsby

          Sure – Cherry pick a single drug with untoward side effects and ignore the thousands of other drugs which have benefited patients for decades!

          • Asia

            It doesn’t matter what I have “cherry picked.” Tell that to the thousands of families who’ve lost someone from “untoward side effects”. When have you known science to not be cherry picked? Some of the most historic journals such as the New England Journal of Medicine, writes articles with “cherry-picked” research. Provide me your email and I will send you some and show how they are cherry picked. So your point is null and void. The untowards side effects speak for themselves which is exactly my point. The fact that thousands of other drugs as you say, have benefited patients does in no way negate the horrors of some drug therapies. Period. Many drugs have benefited patients, yes I know this, what is your point? My post was never about which drugs do and don’t benefit patients. My comment was simply pointing to the fact that pharmaceuticals aren’t the bread and butter of life. Biomedical research is not perfect just like all medical disciplines are not perfect. I mean, Polymerase Chain reaction was just discovered in 1983 (or 1986). Many great medical tools are still new on the scene. Scientists thought pellagra was a virus because the scientists at that time were too stupid and arrogant to start with the basics of the peoples diet in analyzing their food and what could be lacking. They are called virus hunters. My point being is that just because someones title delegates them to a certain position does in no way mean that they are an expert. Just because someone is a scientist does not mean they have common sense and it also does not mean that they should be making decisions for the masses. Just bc someone has the title naturopathic “doctor” does not mean their treatments are better bc they are “natural” nor does it mean they are using research based medicine to back up their claims lol. Every endeavor in life has something that can be improved upon. Fasting (calorie restriction) has always been touted by old time physicians such as Arnold Ehret as one of the greatest tools for health, “modern science” for many years denied these claims (often telling ppl to eat more meals per day) and wrote these physicians off as quacks. However, today on the news stands you see magazines making claims that “calorie restriction is the only way to prolong life”. So sometimes we can be so close to the light that we are blinded by it. Be that so emotionally obsessed with naturopathic medicine that we don’t see the real issues or so obsessed with biomedical research that we’re too arrogant to look at other possibilities. But the truth always speaks for itself.

            • bags

              Naturopaths are responsible for the deaths of thousands through lies and ineffective solutions to problems real medicine solved years ago. That is how Naturopathy kills people, and it does it daily. It kills through lies and deceit and pseudo-scientific gubbins. You can argue that all you like but it won’t change a single thing. you are in an industry that has no merit and is totally reprehensible. it plays on fears to profit. its disgusting

              • WMcCreery

                Well Said!!

        • mho

          I have no idea what the safety profile of celecoxib, but the scandal was about rolecoxib.

          • mho

            edit: safety profile ^is,

          • Bob

            There was also a scandal over celecoxib, though not as great as the one for rolecoxib. Specifically, there was a significant amount of fudged data published regarding the safety and effectiveness of the drug, but this was done after FDA approval, and it was never pulled from the market.

          • Kyle

            Actually, you picked the one selective Cox-2 inhibitor (Celecoxib) that has shown the greatest safety profile. Although some initial data suggested a slight increase in cardiovascular events, clinical data since 2005 have shown little difference between OTC NSAIDs and Celebrex. Actually, ibuprofen has been slightly higher in risk in some studies, but still statistically very small. Naproxen appears to be comparable.

            Rofecoxib (Vioxx) had the most significant CV events, so it was pulled in 2004, with FDA estimated deaths at ~27,000. This estimate is based on % increase of CV events over general population and the number of prescriptions filled since approval. This was the scandal that showed Merck had information of CV events prior to pulling the drug.

            The celecoxib scandal was about how data was shared and was not a significant issue in safety assessment. An ongoing 7 year study called PRECISION, comparing celecoxib to other OTC NSAIDs, should be finishing later this year at the Cleveland Clinic. It will involve close to 30,000 patients.

          • will Bradbury

            Rofecoxib

          • Asia

            Thanks for the correction!

            • CurtW

              Asia, if you wish to defend naturopathy, then address the criticisms directly. Pointing to the flaws of mainstream medicine is not a defense of naturopathy. (yourlogicalfallacyis.com/tu-quoque)

              Besides, the Vioxx debacle is an example of human greed, not a failure of science based medicine. It is an example of the corrupting effect that profit motive has on human behavior. It can be used to argue against capitalism, but it should not be used against evidence based medicine. One could argue that it is a fine example of the ability of the scientific medical community to self correct.

              The Naturopathic community has, to date, exhibited zero ability to self correct.

              The FDA and doctors corrected the Vioxx problem. When will naturopaths correct their Homeopathy problem?

              Keep it up Britt. You are bright beacon in a sea of darkness.

  • anonymous for now for self-preservation reasons

    Britt, I just want you to know that I am grateful for your courage in having embraced thinking for yourself. I am finally finding the courage myself, little by little. While I am in a position where I cannot feel safe to share my name in conjunction with my opinions, your blog offers me hope and strength as I prepare to leave this field forever and never look back. I am fortunate to be smart enough and talented enough to make up for my prior ignorance and actually contribute to society. Wish me luck. I will do my best to help the cause.

    • Donald Scott

      I hope my comments don’t get interpreted as being cynical. I wonder why someone who wishes to remain anonymous can post on your pages? You do know that numerous corporations use web sites like yours to influence the general public and gain a level of opinion that comes from propaganda as opposed to genuine opinion?

      The only genuine author is one who won’t hide behind anonymity, Britt.

      • Badly Shaved Monkey

        I wonder why someone who wishes to remain anonymous can post on your pages?

        I started posting under my real name when I first interacted with SCAMsters on the interwebs. I got tracked by a couple of them in the real world and they wanted to make a nuisance of themselves. There are some serious loons out there pushing the SCAM viewpoint.

        Deal with the arguments not the messenger.

  • Dean Hughson

    It is always interesting to see alt med people claim that there is science behind their profession as they push ‘water’ i.e. homeopathic medicines. If you truly believe in the dilution theory, all water in the world has all of the medications you need. Az is dangerously progressing towards embarrassment. That the former Manager of the ND Board was found to not even a ND degree or that people were being allowed to pass the qualifying tests without actually passing should tell you where the profession is.

  • Travis

    Interesting article, thanks.

    I added it as a rebuttal to both of the reference articles at the top using the web app rbutr, which I recommend everyone check out

  • Joy Duhon

    Hey Britt, Hope you and your husband are doing well in Germany. Just read your article. You had some good points. I guess our perception of Naturopathic medical school vary greatly. We started Bastyr together in 2007 and in Pediatrics at Bastyr they taught us to follow the CDC schedule to vaccines. Your argument does not directly state that Bastyr did not teach us to follow this schedule but it definitely implies it, which is inaccurate. I was actually anti-vaccines before going to the Bastyr ND program and I am no longer due to my education from Bastyr. Take care.

  • Mike Callahan

    I am also a SBM reader. I like your writing and am very interested in what you have to say after being inside the cult of Naturopathy. I was not aware that a physicians note was required for a Personal Belief Exemption. I don’t think a physician is required in California yet. I am not surprised that it was NDs that were giving out exemptions in Arizona. My neighborhood has a larger than normal sample of schools with high PBEs. A list from the LA Times published recently lists over 7000 schools and their PBE rates. A school a few blocks from me is #1 in PBEs with an over 90% exemption rate. It is a Seventh Day Adventist school. Add a few Waldorf schools nearby and a home school aggregation with over 30% exemptions and we have a recipe for infectious mayhem.
    Don’t be thwarted by vicious blowback which is bound to come. People don’t like their faith challenged. It can result in more blowback than insulting your dog or your mother.

  • Taufik

    As far as I know, the leaves of soursop or sirsak is a medicine for cancer and can be very effective, however it will destroy your kidneys.

    And there are many examples of patients in the hospital who suffer from kidney failure because they consume these “claimed safe” herbals, only to get their kidneys destroyed. It’s just experience and story, but maybe if we do the research, it can be clear

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